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Kolambugan

Kolambugan is a municipality (and the former capital) of Lanao del Norte, located along the Panguil Bay, facing Ozamis City in the province of Ozamis Occidental.  It is west of the capital of the province, Tubod, east of Maigo, and north of Tangcal and Magsaysay. The total population as of the 2007 census was 25,306 inhabitants.  It is comprised of 26 barangays, and the landscape varies, from mountainous to flat, from coasts to hinterland communities. The population of Kolambugan is a nearly even mixture of Maranao Muslims and the descendants of Visayan immigrants, the majority of whom are Roman Catholic, although there are other religions practiced among them, including Seventh Day Adventist, Iglesia ni Cristo, Baptist, and United Church of Christ in the Philippines.  Kolambugan is rife with irresponsible and illegal logging, which leads to landslides, flash floods, and conflict within the region.  It was host to battles during the 2003 and 2008 conflicts between the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Moro-Islamic Liberation Front.  There are continuing land disputes due to legalities around titles, as the Maranao do not traditionally keep written documentation because they do not recognize land ownership in this way.  There have also been cases of internally displaced people due to the conflict, whose land has been sold off in their absence.  Furthermore, the government has put in place discriminatory laws about the right to buy land, which have negatively impacted upon the Maranao.  However, there are legitimate cases of Visayan ownership, wherein the families have suffered harassment or have been dragged into the conflict, in spite of their ability to prove their right to occupy their land.  The climate is hot and humid, and there are regular afternoon rains, which are often torrential downpours, and can lead to flooding and land sides.

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Maigo

Maigo is a municipality in the province of Lanao del Norte.  It is located on the Panguil Bay, west of Kolambugan, east of Bacolod, and north of Munai.  The population as of 2007 was 18,706.  It is comprised of 13 barangays.  There are relatively even populations of Muslim Maranao and Christian Visayans in the municipality, and generally speaking these groups live harmoniously amongst each other, however there has been conflict in the area due to the ongoing disputes between the Moro-Islamic Liberation Front and the Armed Forces of the Philippines.  The region has been affected by banditry, wherein coconuts harvested by thieves and cattle-rustling are commonly practiced.  The climate is hot and humid, and there are regular afternoon rains, which are often torrential downpours.

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Nunungan

Nunungan is a municipality in the province of Lanao del Norte.  It is a landlocked region, bordered on the north by Tubod, the provincial capital, on the northwest by Salvador, on the west by Sultan Naga Dimaporo, and on the south and east by Lanao del Sur.  There are 25 barangays within the municipality, and the population as of 2007 was 13,999, and is exclusively Muslim Maranao.  It is the last remaining rain forest of Lanao del Norte, and is the watershed of Kapatagan Valley, which is the rice granary of Lanao del Norte.  In spite of this very important role it plays within the region, it is still host to irresponsible and illegal logging, and has experienced minor cases of timber poaching, although the local community is working to address this, and their efforts have kept the problem to a minimum.  The economy is dependent largely on agriculture, and cultivated crops include the upland variety of rice, as well as corn and vegetables.  The climate is very cool for the Philippines, and is marked by significant amounts of rain throughout the year. 

Poona Piagapo

Poona Piagapo is a municipality in the province of Lanao del Norte.  It is a landlocked region, bordered on the north by Matungao, on the west by Pantao Ragat, on the east by Palo-i, and on the south by the province of Lanao del Sur.  The population as of 2007 was 19,818.  It is comprised of 26 barangays.  The population is made up almost exclusively of Muslim Maranao.  Irresponsible and illegal logging are widely practiced in the area, and due to the mountainous nature of the landscape, this creates severe flooding and landslides on a nearly daily basis.  There are also conflict issues, as this is a common battle ground for the Moro-Islamic Liberation Front and the Armed Forces of the Philippines.  Due to the ongoing dangers posed by the conflict, the inhabitants of the region are often displaced, facing the myriad difficulties this imposes on their lives.  The people of the area are greatly dependent on agriculture, and the most widely cultivated crops are coconut, corn, and turmeric.  The climate is cooler than in other parts of the Philippines, and the region experiences daily torrential downpours.

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